Development of the type reached a peak during World War II, when large flying boats were fielded by most of the major combatants in substantial numbers. One of the most prominent of these aircraft was the British "Short Sunderland", an excellent machine that made a major contribution to the Allied war effort, particularly in the Battle of the Atlantic against German submarines or "U-boats".
This document provides a history and description of the Sunderland. Great Britain had nothing to match the new American Sikorsky flying boats that were making headlines all over the world, and the authorities in Britain felt something should be done to fix the imbalance. Inthe British postmaster general declared that all first-class Royal Mail sent overseas was to travel by air, effectively establishing a subsidy for the development of intercontinental air transportation.
In response, British Imperial Airways announced a competition for an order for 28 flying boats, each weighing The contract went almost directly to Short Brothers of Rochester in England. Shorts had long experience in building flying boats for the military and for Imperial Airways.
However, none of the flying boats built by Shorts to that time were in the class of size and sophistication requested by Imperial Airways.
The business opportunity was too great to pass up despite the risk, and so Oswald Short, head of the company, began a crash program to design a flying boat far beyond anything the company had ever built. The head of the design team was Arthur later Sir Arthur Gouge. The design he produced, the Short "S. The S. The big flying boat had two decks: an upper deck for the flight crew and mail, and a lower deck with luxury passenger accommodations.
The first S. A total of 41 S. While the S. The British were so desperate to stay in the race for trans-Atlantic commercial flight that they then came up with an extraordinary scheme, in which a beefed-up variant of the S. Inthe company delivered the first of an improved C-class boat, the "S. Eight S. Limited trans-Atlantic operations were conducted in coordination with Harrow tankers operating out of Ireland and Newfoundland, until World War II intervened and put a stop to the flights.
Another C-class variant, the "S. However, three of the bigger and better "S. The G-class boats had a loaded weight of 34 tonnes 75, poundsa range of more than 4, kilometers 3, milesand were intended for trans-Atlantic mail service. Four S. The three S.Relegated Sunderland ended a miserable season in the Championship by thumping champions Wolves, who missed out on the chance to top points.
Sunderland are the only team not beaten by Wolves in the league this season, following December's draw at Molineux. The home side, who released boss Chris Coleman from his contract last Sunday, had only previously won two league games at home this season, while Wolves arrived at the Stadium of Light with the division's best away record.
Sunderland were watched from the stands by prospective new owner Stewart Donald, who has agreed a deal to buy the club from Ellis Short as part of a consortium. Wolves, who lifted the Championship trophy last weekend, finish the season with 99 points, a record for the Molineux club in the second tier.
Sunderland ended the game with six academy players on the pitch at the Stadium of Light, with year-old Luke Molyneux having made his first senior start and Elliot Embleton, Denver Hume and Bali Mumba all coming off the substitutes' bench in the second half. It was a proud moment for the football club.
The environment they created was great. His brilliance around the training ground, and on the pitch he's always organising. The mix of senior and younger players was really good.50 ford
It is not a question now of looking at it too deeply, although we should have done better. What they have achieved is fantastic. We have finished as champions and we did everything that we wanted to. They should all be very proud. Match ends, Sunderland 3, Wolverhampton Wanderers 0. Second Half ends, Sunderland 3, Wolverhampton Wanderers 0. Foul by Bright Enobakhare Wolverhampton Wanderers. Ovie Ejaria Sunderland wins a free kick on the left wing.
Foul by Danny Batth Wolverhampton Wanderers. Denver Hume Sunderland wins a free kick in the defensive half. Attempt blocked.Abaqus example
Diogo Jota Wolverhampton Wanderers right footed shot from the centre of the box is blocked. Assisted by Romain Saiss. Substitution, Sunderland.
Bali Mumba replaces John O'Shea. Attempt missed. Assisted by Bright Enobakhare. Hand ball by Bright Enobakhare Wolverhampton Wanderers. Corner, Wolverhampton Wanderers. Conceded by Denver Hume. Corner, Sunderland.Sniper gamertags
Conceded by Matt Doherty. Ethan Robson Sunderland left footed shot from a difficult angle and long range on the right is blocked.The ancestry of the Short Sunderland stretches back to a British civil requirement for an airliner capable of travelling for miles, at a speed of mph and carrying 24 passengers. The world was rapidly shrinking.
There was an urgent need for the time taken for passengers and mail to reach the extremities of the old British Empire, to be reduced from weeks by sea, to days by air. At this time such a specification was beyond the capabilities of land planes, so the focus was on flying boats. Skip to content. September 13, August 26, Plane Blogger. By Peter Sedgley The ancestry of the Short Sunderland stretches back to a British civil requirement for an airliner capable of travelling for miles, at a speed of mph and carrying 24 passengers.
Short Brothers Aircraft of Rochester, Kent were renown flying boat manufacturers and they submitted a design for a four engine high wing metal monoplane. In an unprecedented step Imperial Airways, forerunner of B. C and latterly B. In late they started flying routes from Southampton Docks to Egypt, then the Cape, India, Singapore and finally to Sydney, on flights lasting 10 days. Plans were afoot to extend services to North America but the war intervened.
Gun turrets were added to the nose and tail, and depth charges were housed within the fuselage. When attacking, large panels beneath the wings were removed and the bombs were rolled out under the wings on rails The ranges of the flying boat was also extended to 1, miles.
On the 16th October the prototype taxied out onto the River Medway in Kent, and the first of Short Sunderlands took to the skies. Mk1 Short S. By the Battle of the Atlantic was in full swing.
German U boat submarines were attacking Allied convoys with the aim of forcing Britain into surrender. This manifested itself on the water, causing problems on take off. Not only did it have the more powerful 1, HP Bristol Pegasus engines, but the underwater section of the hull had been redesigned.
Altogether of this mark were produced, and they became the most prolific Sunderlands in service. Instead of immediately crash diving once a U boat had been spotted by an aircraft, with increased anti aircraft guns, some submarines chose to stay on the surface and try to shoot their attacker down. Also streamlined radar antennas in the form of blisters were installed under both wings.
A U Boat — U sinking after being attacked by a Sunderland. To seek out U boats and give maximum protection to the convoys, Sunderlands had to patrol far out into the Atlantic.
Sometimes a patrol would last 14 hours and it was essential that their bases were as close to the Atlantic as possible. But there was a snag. The last five miles to the sea was over County Donegal, which was in the neutral.
Republic of Ireland.Shopify admin api docs
A Sunderland resting at Lough Erne. Hundred of patrols were flown using the corridor, as well as the airspace being used by aircraft being ferried in from America. At Castle Archdale, on the north shore of this beautiful lough, the RAF quickly built a major base, with a satellite station along the shore at Killadeas.
A maritime bomber orbiting a convoy, made it extremely difficult and dangerous for a U boat to attack or shadow a convoy, so it would go deep and remain unseen, and the convoy would safely pass.
How many of these flying boats prevented attacks from submarines? Dozens definitely. Hundreds maybe?The aircraft of RAF Coastal Command were spread far and wide as the Allies sought to extend their surveillance of the seas.
In turn of course the Germans were intent on fighting back. They attempted to arm their U-boats with better anti-aircraft guns. And they brought in more aircraft to take on the U-boat hunters.
No sea area was contested more fiercely than the Bay of Biscay.Why Aircraft Patrols Were a Source of Fear for Nazi U-Boats
Here RAF aircraft were proving remarkably successful in catching U-boats as they departed from their French bases or returned from patrols.
But the hunters soon became the hunted as the Luftwaffe brought more planes back to the area. On 2nd June a Sunderland of Squadron R. F took on eight Ju 88 and won. It was a remarkable air battle, memorably recorded by Ivan Southall, a member of the Squadron at the time:. The turrets moved slowly while eyes strained in the sunlight. This was indeed the Tiger Country, a slaughteryard, a stage for a play of suspense and savagery, where all men at one time or another knew the meaning of fear.
Here there were no parachutes and no patriots in the back country. Goode, swinging his tail turret to the right, suddenly stopped. Thirty degrees on the port quarter. Six miles. Up one thousand feet. Electric silence. A moment or two of shock. Simpson suddenly jumped to the astrodome. Walker rammed his throttles wide and sounded the alarm. Dowling hauled on the pitch levers and the engines howled at twenty-six hundred revolutions a minute. Can you identify those aircraft?
‘Battle in the Bay’ – Sunderland v Ju 88s
They came sweeping in at high speed. Attacked by eight JUs. No better. Have you got the bomb-racks out? Bombs gone. Run in the racks, close the doors, and get cracking with the galley guns.Frequency scale invariance on x86
Lane on the port. Three are on the Starboard beam; three port beam; one on each quarter. Range fifteen hundred yards; fifteen hundred feet up. Suddenly his voice was there again, precise, calm, yet — underlaid with urgency.
One peeling off from each beam. Prepare to corkscrew. Twelve hundred yards. One thousand yards. Prepare to corkscrew to starboard.The Short S. It took its service name from the town latterly, city and port of Sunderland in northeast England. Based in part upon the S. It was one of the most powerful and widely used flying boats throughout the Second World War and was involved in countering the threat posed by German U-boats in the Battle of the Atlantic.
It also took part in the Berlin airlift. Sunderlands converted for civil use, known as Short Sandringhamscontinued in airline operation until A single airworthy example remains on display in Florida.
The early s saw intense competition in developing long-range intercontinental passenger service between the United Kingdom, the United States, France and Germany, but the United Kingdom had no equivalent to the new American Sikorsky S flying boats or the German Dornier Do X.
However, inthe British Postmaster General declared that all first-class Royal Mail sent overseas was to travel by air, establishing a subsidy for the development of intercontinental air transport in a fashion similar to the U. The contract went to Short Brothers of Rochester and while the first example of the new type, the S. The Air Ministry Specification R. The new aircraft had to have four engines but could be either a monoplane or biplane design.
Specification R. As with the S. Saunders-Roe also designed a flying boat, the Saro A. The initial S. The S. As construction proceeded the armament was changed to a single 0. Then there was a change in the tail turret to a powered version and Gouge had to devise a solution for the resulting movement aft of the aircraft's centre of gravity.
The unarmed prototype K first flew, on 16 October The crew was originally intended to be seven but increased in later versions to 11 crew members or more. It was of all-metal, mainly flush-riveted construction except for the control surfaces, which were of fabric-covered metal frame construction.
Sunderland 3-0 Wolves
The thick wings carried the four nacelle-mounted Pegasus engines and accommodated six drum fuel tanks with a total capacity of 9, litres 2, Imperial gallons2, U. Four smaller fuel tanks were added later behind the rear wing spar to give a total fuel capacity of 11, litres 2, Imperial gallons, 3, U. The ordnance was stored inside the fuselage in a bomb room and was winched up to racks, under the wing centre section, that could be traversed out through doors on each side of the fuselage above the waterline to the release position.
These were later upgraded to 0.Obsolescent by the end of the War, long range maritime patrol flying boats seaplanes were nevertheless produced and used by most of the major WW II maritime powers.
No airfield meant no battle with enemy troops for possession of the land, no supply line to sustain the airfield and this made the seaplane's "base" much harder to detect.
As forward, long range reconnaissance aircraft, flying boats were ideal. They were also capable cargo and troop transports that did not require long, prepared runways and it is in this role that the later flying boats primarily served. Of course, all weapon systems have weaknesses and for seaplanes of any type these were primarily in the areas of performance. A land based airplane with retractable landing gear can be designed to be more aerodynamically efficient than a flying boat.
Because it is more efficient in the air, it can be faster with the same propulsive power and it can have a longer cruising range. Nautical equipment, including dingys, lines, winches, boat hooks, mooring gear and anchors, etc.
Twin and single-engined seaplanes were numerous and served in many roles, including reconnaissance, as fighters and shipboard scouts. Large, four-engined flying boats were technically complicated and comparatively expensive to manufacture.
Consequently, they were far less common. However, they have a special fascination and grandeur all their own.
For the Allied maritime powers, long range flying boats made a major contribution in the battle against the U-boats.The ed gein files
They searched for U-boats on the high seas and provided critical anti-submarine protection for convoys. Flying boats also served as long range transports of valuable personnel and cargo and sometimes as rescue aircraft.
With a plentitude of secure land bases around the perimeter of the North Atlantic, the primary venue of the U-boat battle, the introduction of maritime patrol versions of heavy bombers, especially the long range PB4Y maritime patrol version of the B Liberatorsubstantially reduced the importance of the maritime patrol flying boat in the later stages of the war. In the great reaches of the Pacific, where the possession of island airfields sparked fierce land battles that cost both sides dearly, the long range flying boat remained an important naval weapon until the final stage of the war.
In the U. Development of turbine powered seaplanes continued far into the Cold War era by the U. The latter three nations still operate seaplanes. Post-war seaplane developments are, however, beyond the scope of this article. This article will examine the greatest flying boats that saw operational use during the war.
It does not include amphibians or twin-engined seaplanes, such as the fine PBY-5a Catalina, only multi-engined flying boats. The specifications for the great flying boats in this article were taken primarily from Janes Fighting Aircraft of World War II, supplemented by online data from Wikipedia.
Their long range master was the Kawanishi H8K Type 2a high performance, four-engined bomber, reconnaissance and transport aircraft code named "Emily" by the Allies. This was the best flying boat of the war with excellent performance, long range and good defensive armament.
Emilys ranged the Pacific, providing valuable information about Allied movements and dispositions. They were also employed as long range bombers and Type 2 flying boats raided Honolulu, Hawaii in March Because of their long range, they were pressed into service as scouts for Japanese carrier striking forces, but they often suffered grievous losses at the hands of radar directed carrier-borne fighters when they approached U.
Unlike most Japanese aircraft, the H8K-2 incorporated armor protection for the crew and protected fuel tanks in the wings and fuselage. Defensive armament included single 20mm cannon in the nose turret, dorsal turret, tail turret and port and starboard beam blisters. These were augmented by five. Offensive weapons included two torpedoes or pounds of bombs and depth charges.
Performance was excellent, the best of any of the big WW II flying boats. Top speed was almost mph at around 20,' and the service ceiling was over 28,'. After the Japanese developed radar, surface search sets were fitted to H8K patrol bombers.Follow us on Twitter uboatnet. To meet requirement R. The S. The Sunderland had a deep hull, and the wings were set high on the fuselage, to keep the engines and propellers away from the water spray.
For the time, its size was very impressive. The hull had a single step, which served to break the suction of the water, and allow the flying boat to unstick. The characteristic blunt nose contained a two-gun turret, and the tail a four-gun turret. To correct a problem with the center of gravity, the wings were given a slight sweepback; the result was that the engines were slightly toed out. This cost some engine efficiency, but an advantage was that it improved controllability with one engine out.
The stabilizing floats under the wing tips were attached by two struts and wire-bracing. On the water the aircraft was steered by canvas drogues, which were deployed through the galley windows. The Sunderland was a pure flying boat, and if it had to be brought on shore special beaching wheels had to be fitted. Usually the Sunderlands were moored to a buoy.
For this purpose, the front gun turret was rolled back and a chain was ran out. An anchor was on board, too. Daily maintenance was performed while the aircraft was moored. Supplies, fuel and ammunition were brought by boats, and some care was required to avoid damaging the hull. It was not uncommon for crews to live in their Sunderland between flights.
If the aircraft was moored two men were required to be on board during the night, and during gales a pilot had to be on board because the engines were used to turn the aircraft in the wind. Of course the bilges had to be pumped out regularly, and for this both a manual pump and a pump driven by an Auxiliary Power Unit were installed. Interior shot, looking forward from the tail. The Sunderland Mk. The fuel for these engines was held in ten self-sealing fuel tanks in the wings, for a total of gallons liters.
In addition to the guns in the nose and tail turret, the Mk. I had two guns in hatches on the upper aft fuselage.
- Factoring puzzle pdf
- Prismacolor premier soft core colored pencils 150
- Costco kokuho rice
- Trigonometry project pdf
- Santa hat on photo
- Nad t778 release date
- Garmin fenix 5 stages power meter
- Sn95 turbo kit
- Pa6 gf15 connector
- Cat d4e specs
- Pirod truss leg
- C10 sliding rear window seal
- Wow classic battleground weekends
- Altium 19 tutorial
- Construction cost calculator pakistan